Emotional Intelligence Framework

Most of the early research on intelligence focused on problem solving and other things that were easy to measure. However, it has long been accepted that other factors are essential for predicting someone's ability to succeed at work and in life.

In the early 1990s the psychologists Salovey and Mayer defined these as 'a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and action.' They proposed that an individual's ability to recognize, understand, regulate, and use emotions were things that could be studied and measured.

Emotional intelligence can be defined as 'Understanding one's own feelings, empathy for the feelings of others and the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living.' Daniel Goleman popularized the term in the title of his bestselling book, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More than IQ.

The publication of Goleman's book in 1995 marked the beginning of emotional intelligence as something that was recognized by mainstream business theorists and writers. Whilst not everyone agrees with Goleman's model of emotional intelligence, there is general agreement that emotional intelligence exists, and that it is a factor in personal and professional success.

Goleman's model describes EQ in terms of five domains that are split into four quadrants. Two of the domains are related to personal competence and two are related to social competence.

The theory of emotional intelligence is popular because it implies that EQ can be developed and improved. This is not universally accepted but research has supported the idea that emotional intelligence competencies can be significantly improved over time.

This development can be divided into personal and social competencies. Personal competence is made up of self-awareness and self-management. Self-awareness is the ability to recognize your own emotions and their effects on your self and other people. Self-management builds on your self-awareness, using your own self-control to ensure your emotions don't control you.

Social competence is made up of social awareness and relationship management. Social awareness competencies include empathy, organizational awareness, and service orientation. Relationship management competencies include influence, leadership, developing others, communication, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, and teamwork and collaboration.

The following has been compiled from a variety of sources by the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations 'EI Framework'.

This EI framework details the personal and social competencies.

SELF-AWARENESS
Emotional awareness: Recognizing one's emotions and their effects. People with this competence:
1. Know which emotions they are feeling and why
2. Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and say
3. Recognize how their feelings affect their performance
4. Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals

Accurate self-assessment: Knowing one's strengths and limits. People with this competence are:
5. Aware of their strengths and weaknesses
6. Reflective, learning from experience
7. Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, continuous learning, and self-development
8. Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves

Self-confidence: Sureness about one's self-worth and capabilities. People with this competence:
9. Present themselves with self-assurance; have 'presence'
10. Can voice views that are unpopular, and go out on a limb for what is right
11. Are decisive, able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressures

SELF-REGULATION
Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses. People with this competence:
12. Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well
13. Stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments
14. Think clearly and stay focused under pressure

Trustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. People with this competence:
15. Act ethically and are above reproach
16. Build trust through their reliability and authenticity
17. Admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others
18. Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular

Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance. People with this competence:
19. Meet commitments and keep promises
20. Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives
21. Are organized and careful in their work

Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change. People with this competence:
22. Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid change
23. Adapt their responses and tactics to fit fluid circumstances
24. Are flexible in how they see events

Innovativeness: Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new information. People with this competence:
25. Seek out fresh ideas from a wide variety of sources
26. Entertain original solutions to problems
27. Generate new ideas
28. Take fresh perspectives and risks in their thinking

SELF-MOTIVATION
Achievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence. People with this competence:
29. Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and standards
30. Set challenging goals and take calculated risks
31. Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better
32. Learn how to improve their performance

Commitment: Aligning with the goals of the group or organization. People with this competence:
33. Readily make personal or group sacrifices to meet a larger organizational goal
34. Find a sense of purpose in the larger mission
35. Use the group's core values in making decisions and clarifying choices
36. Actively seek out opportunities to fulfill the group's mission

Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities. People with this competence:
37. Are ready to seize opportunities
38. Pursue goals beyond what's required or expected of them
39. Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the job done
40. Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts

Optimism: Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks. People with this competence:
41. Persist in seeking goals despite obstacles and setbacks
42. Operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure
43. See setbacks as due to manageable circumstance rather than a personal flaw

SOCIAL AWARENESS
Empathy: Sensing others' feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns. People with this competence:
44. Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
45. Show sensitivity and understand others' perspectives
46. Help out based on understanding other people's needs and feelings

Service orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers' needs. People with this competence:
47. Understand customers' needs and match them to services or products
48. Seek ways to increase customers' satisfaction and loyalty
49. Gladly offer appropriate assistance
50. Grasp a customer's perspective, acting as a trusted advisor

Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and bolstering their abilities. People with this competence:
51. Acknowledge and reward people's strengths, accomplishments, and development
52. Offer useful feedback and identify people's needs for development
53. Mentor, give timely coaching, and offer assignments that challenge and grow a person's skills.

Leveraging diversity: Cultivating opportunities through diverse people. People with this competence:
54. Respect and relate well to people from varied backgrounds
55. Understand diverse world views and are sensitive to group differences
56. See diversity as opportunity, creating an environment where diverse people can thrive
57. Challenge bias and intolerance

Political awareness: Reading a group's emotional currents and power relationships. People with this competence:
58. Accurately read key power relationships
59. Detect crucial social networks
60. Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients, customers, or competitors
61. Accurately read situations and organizational and external realities

SOCIAL SKILLS
Influence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion. People with this competence:
62. Are skilled at persuasion
63. Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener
64. Use complex strategies like indirect influence to build consensus and support
65. Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point

Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages. People with this competence:
66. Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in attuning their message
67. Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly
68. Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information fully
69. Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as good

Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people. People with this competence:
70. Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission
71. Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position
72. Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable
73. Lead by example

Change catalyst: Initiating or managing change. People with this competence:
74. Recognize the need for change and remove barriers
75. Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change
76. Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit
77. Model the change expected of others

Conflict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with this competence:
78. Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact
79. Spot potential conflict, bring disagreements into the open and help deescalate
80. Encourage debate and open discussion
81. Orchestrate win-win solutions

Building bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships. People with this competence:
82. Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks
83. Seek out relationships that are mutually beneficial
84. Build rapport and keep others in the loop
85. Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates

Collaboration and cooperation: Working with others toward shared goals. People with this competence:
86. Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships
87. Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources
88. Promote a friendly, cooperative climate
89. Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration

Team capabilities: Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals. People with this competence:
90. Model team qualities like respect, helpfulness, and cooperation
91. Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation
92. Build team identity, esprit de corps, and commitment
93. Protect the group and its reputation; share credit

Sources:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, MOSAIC Competencies for Professional and Administrative Occupations.
Spencer, L. M. and Spencer, S. M. (1993), Competence at Work, Wiley; and top performance and leadership competence studies published in Richard H. Rosier (ed.) (1994 and 1995), The Competency Model Handbook, Volumes One and Two, Boston: Linkage,
Goleman, D. (1998), Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam.

You may also be interested in:
Understanding Emotional Intelligence | Goleman's Model of EI | Emotional Quotient (EQ) and IQ | EQ and Management | EQ Timeline | Can EQ be Developed? | Personal Competence | Social Competence.

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